Need To Know Copyright

Copyright symbol All Rights Reserve

by Barbara Nevins Taylor 

Our first instinct is to pull images and music from the internet. Everything is right there for the taking and many who create content think about using what’s accessible and seems available. Borrowing can quickly solve a variety of editorial problems.

But not all material on the internet is free to use and it may be illegal to just grab and go.

Copyright is a law that protects creators of works that include text, books, photos, graphics, artwork, music, and anything that has a copyright symbol next to it.

 

Office of Copyright in the Library of Congress
Office of Copyright in the Library of Congress

How do you get a copyright?

The federal Office of Copyright says:

“The copyright notice generally consists of the symbol or word “copyright (or copr.),” the name of the copyright owner, and the year of first publication, e.g., ©2008 John Doe. While use of a copyright notice was once required as a condition of copyright protection, it is now optional. Use of the notice is the responsibility of the copyright owner and does not require advance permission from, or registration with, the Copyright Office. 

How long does it last?

Copyright extends for the life of the author plus 70 years. There are some efforts underway in Washington to change the copyright law and reduce the number of years a creator can hold on to copyright.

But the bottom line is that the law, and basic fairness, require us to honor copyright.

That means that we can’t borrow material freely from the internet unless the creator clearly states that you can use the work.

Fee for Use

If you want to use an image or music and the creator does not indicate that you may borrow it, there’s likely a fee to use it.

 Copyright and Creative Commons

On the other hand, the good news is that some content creators are eager to have their work used and distributed even if they don’t get paid.

Most, however, want credit.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Creative-Commons-License-.png

The Creative Commons License was established in 2002 to make a wide variety of content available from willing content creators who want to get their work seen and heard, but may also want credit. The Creative Commons 4.0 license requires you to attribute the photo, or piece of music or artwork. You must link to the site where the image came from and you must give credit on your site to the creator.

This image has an empty alt attribute; its file name is Creative-Commons-License-3.0.png

Flikr,  Unsplash, SnapFish, 500px , postimage, and other sites that will probably start up by the time you read this, offer photo sharing of one kind or another.

Many of the photos posted on these sharing sites ask for Creative Commons attribution. They make their work available under a Creative Commons License.

 

In most cases, even with Creative Commons, the creator wants credit. You can freely use these images, but you must credit the creator either on the image, or somewhere in the printed material or the text on the website or the brochure. There is often a request for you to link to the creators site, or Wikimedia where the image may have been posted.

You can find images with Creative Commons licenses indicate via Google and Bing search engines.

Google screen shot for tools

When you use images on Google there is a tab for settings.

On Bing there is a tab for License.

On Google

Click on Advanced Search and it will take you to this page:

Choose:  “free to use or share, even commercially

If you plan to modify the image or graphic make sure that you choose: “free to use, share or modify, even commercially.”

You’ll then get a range of photos that you can use for free. But you must if it is an attribution license, you must give credit to the creator.

If you use Bing once you choose the subject that you are searching, images will come up and the list of headings in the bar at the top of the images will include the word: License. 

You can also find images through Wikimedia or Wikipedia

Wikicommons Better image

Some people will allow you to use the images without attributions. But be very careful.  To find the license you may have to click through several layers to check to see the requirement. 

Pixabay features a wide range of photos posted by photographers. They are free, but you can leave a donation for the artist. They ask for coffee money.

Tiger, Photo by Gellinger, Courtesy Pixabay

Photo by Gellinger, Courtesy Pixabay, Creative Commons License

Public Domain 

On Wikipedia, and elsewhere, you may find works labeled Public Domain.  The federal Office of Copyright defines public domain this way:

“The public domain is not a place. A work of authorship is in the “public domain” if it is no longer under copyright protection or if it failed to meet the requirements for copyright protection. Works in the public domain may be used freely without the permission of the former copyright owner.”

U.S. Government agencies maintain photo and video archives and most of the work is in the public domain. 

This Department of Defense photo for example is free for you to use. It’s always a good idea to give credit to the photographer and the agency.

 Photo By: Petty Officer 2nd Class Nicholas Burgains

 

U.S. Marines on exercise

U.S. Marines, Senor Beach, Oman. U.S. Marine Corps photo by Gunnery Sgt. Robert B. Brown Jr.

The Library of Congress has photos and videos in the Public Domain.

Hot Lips

Hot Lips at the Apollo, 1946.  William P. Gottlieb/Ira and Leonore S. Gershwin Fund Collection, Music Division, Library of Congress.

FEMA, the Federal Emergency Management Agency offers Public Domain photos and video of disaster areas when the agency responds.

Hurricame Maria Responsed, FEMA photo

Hurricane Maria response, Photo courtesy FEMA

FEMA Home Destroyed in Bayhead, New Jersey

Aftermath of Hurricane Sandy. Photo courtesy  FEMA.

https://www.dvidshub.net/unit/FEMA

 

VIDEO 

Vimeo offers Public Domain videos. You can them here: https://vimeo.com/channels/publicdomain

Government agencies also have video that you can use for free.

Pixabay  Offers videos on a many subjects and you can use them for free. 

Videvo.net offers free stock footage.

Archive.org features videos that creators will let you use. Make sure to check the license to see if attribution is required.

https://archive.org/details/NycTrafficTimeLapse/NycTrafficWmv.wmv

Moving Image Archive hosts videos you can use. Again, make sure to check the license.

CreativeCommons has a site where you check for video. 

 

Music

Popular music generally requires the payment of royalties to the artists, composers, arrangers, producers and anyone else who had something to do with the production of those works.

Licensed Music and Music for a Fee

 ASCAP and BMI provide licensing for music and it is possible to purchase the rights, or a license, to use something that fits the creative bill.

But in most cases, the cost is prohibitive unless you have a blanket license to use a certain amount of music.

If you use music in a video that you post on YouTube and the creator has not authorized the use, it is likely that YouTube will challenge your right to use it and it may block your video.

However, there are new sites cropping up all of the time and there is a wide range of choices for music selections.

Stock music is available for a fee and there a many sites that offer this service including:

Unroyalty YouTube

http://www.stockmusic.net

http://www.freestockmusic.com

http://www.premiumbeat.com/stock-music

http://www.pond5.com/music/1/*.html

http://us.audionetwork.com

http://www.gettyimages.com/music

 

Royalty Free Music

YouTube’s audio library and has a range of music that is available for free

http://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary

There are many sites that also offer free music. There is generally a stipulation that requires that you honor the Creative Commons License and credit the creators.

ccMixter

Incompetech

SoundCloud

http://www.purple-planet.com

Again, by the time you read this there may be many new sites.

 

Fair Use in News and Reviews

From the American Bar Association

Vol. 28 No. 6

By

Pierre Vudrag practices media and sports law in Southern California.

Fair use is a doctrine that is used to encourage criticism and commentary of copyrighted works. It is based on the concept that one should be free to use portions of copyrighted materials without asking permission from the copyright owner. It is an equitable principle that is frequently used as a defense by those sued for copyright infringement.

Determining fair use. To get a general sense of how fair use is applied, one must understand a set of fair use factors outlined in the lineage of case law dealing with copyright infringement. These factors are weighed in each case to determine whether a use qualifies as a fair use, often through varying court decisions with an expansive or restrictive meaning that could be open to interpretation. If a use is deemed not to be a fair use, then one would essentially be infringing on the rights of the copyright owner and may be liable for damages. Unfortunately, even if you strictly follow these factors and the copyright owner disagrees with your fair use interpretation, your dispute may have to be resolved through litigation or the payment of licensing fees.

Fair use in the general sense, with no hard-and-fast rules, is the use of copyrighted material without permission from the appropriate copyright owner for a limited and, as the courts deem, “transformative” purpose so as to comment on, criticize, or parody such copyrighted work. Specifically, the Supreme Court emphasized that the transformative nature of the use determines whether the material has been used to assist in the creation of something new, rather than merely copied verbatim into another work. In other words, one must ask: (1) has the material taken from the original work been transformed by adding new expression or meaning? and (2) was value added to the original, thereby creating new information, or new aesthetics, or new insights and understandings?

Generally, two categories are used when making a fair use—commentary or parody. Typically, when focusing on news and editorial reviews, one would look to the first category, commentary. When commenting on or critiquing a copyrighted work, fair use principles would allow one to reproduce some of the work to accomplish one’s intent.

Courts have generally used four factors in resolving fair use disputes, which are laid out in Section 107 of the Copyright Act: (1) the purpose and character of the use; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion taken; and (4) the effect of the use on the potential market.

The purpose and character of the use. The “purpose and character” factor is the determining factor in many fair use decisions, as it allows the court to take a subjective look into the potentially infringing party’s intentions behind the use. Particularly in cases involving news reports, footage, reviews, and sports highlights, this factor typically favors the party claiming fair use for various reasons.

The first thing that we need to know is that copyright protection does not protect factual information conveyed in the copyrighted work, meaning that publicizing the scores of a sporting event or other factual information such as injuries, retirement, and so forth is considered fair use and does not constitute copyright infringement. What helps to strengthen a fair use argument in a case not involving the use of mere factual information is the use of the copyrighted material for the purpose of legitimate news commentary. For example, when using a clip or photograph to report the results of a sporting event or other factual information, courts have regarded the use of copyrighted material as fair use when the use is (1) brief quotations only; (2) presented in a news report; and (3) presented in a newsreel or broadcast of a work located in the scene of an event being reported.

Nature of the copyrighted work—published or unpublished. The scope of fair use is narrower for unpublished works because an author has the right to control the first public appearance of his or her expression. Therefore, you have a stronger argument in favor of fair use if the material copied is from a published work rather than an unpublished work.

Amount and substantiality of the portion taken. A general misunderstanding of fair use application has led to the “seven-second rule,” which many clearance representatives follow. A brief use of footage may not be deemed fair use unless all fair use factors can be applied. But the amount of footage used is a key factor in determining if a use is not fair, as highlighted in a key 1977 court case. The Second Circuit found that a CBS affiliate’s use of a one-minute-and-15-second clip of a 72-minute Charlie Chaplin film was not a fair use when used in a news report about Chaplin’s death. The court deemed that the portions taken were “substantial” and part of the “heart” of the film. The court’s analysis may have been different if CBS had used only a limited portion of the footage to simply enhance its news commentary on Chaplin’s death. The Second Circuit’s ruling is a clear indication that this type of use will never be considered fair use.

Effect of the use on the potential market. One of the most important fair use factors is whether the use deprives the copyright owner of income or undermines a new or potential market for the copyrighted work. If a copyright owner feels that he or she has been deprived of income, this is likely to trigger a lawsuit. This is true even if you are not competing directly with the original work.

Does fair use apply? Although the four-factor test of Copyright Act Section 107 provides a firm foundation for understanding which uses are fair uses, courts have infamously favored different factors in different cases, resulting in very unpredictable outcomes. There is a sizable gray area in which fair use may or may not apply.

So how does a news organization invoke fair use while falling within the permitted guidelines established by case law and without invoking potential litigation? The simplest way is to get permission from the copyright holder, but this is not always possible given the fluidity and immediacy of news reporting. To invoke fair use when using noncleared third-party clips, the news organization should follow these guidelines: (1) make sure the use is for a legitimate news report; (2) only use the clip when reporting on a fairly recent news event (usually 24 to 48 hours); (3) make sure that the use is a brief use of the clip to underscore the reporting of the news; (4) make sure there is actual commentary or criticism by a news reporter or anchor of the action appearing in the clip (there has to be a “transformative use” of the copyrighted material); (5) if reporting on a sporting event, make sure the event has been concluded, meaning it may not be fair use if the game has not been completed; and (6) make sure the materials are used in a bona fide news program.

 

More Information about the Entertainment and Sports Industries Forum

This article is an abridged and edited version of one that originally appeared on page 1 of Entertainment and Sports Lawyer, Fall 2010 (28:3).

For more information or to obtain a copy of the periodical in which the full article appears, please call the ABA Service Center at 800/285-2221.

Website: www.americanbar.org/groups/entertainment_sports.html.

Periodicals: Entertainment and Sports Lawyer, a quarterly newsletter; Journal of International Media and Entertainment Law, a biannual journal.

CLE and Other Educational Programs: Forum Annual Meeting, October 13–15, 2011, New York, New York.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Follow the prompts at the top and enter your search.

 

You can skip down to the bottom where it says: usage rights. Click on the arrow and the following choices come up.

 

Choose:  “free to use or share, even commercially

 

If you plan to modify the image or graphic make sure that you choose: “free to use, share or modify, even commercially.”

 

You’ll then get a range of photos that you can use for free. But you must give credit to the creator.

 

If you use Bing once you choose the subject that you are searching, images will come up and the list of headings in the bar at the top of the images will include the word: License.

 

 

A drop-down menu provides the same choices that appear on Google Images.

 

Always choose a commercial license and if you plan to modify make sure that you choose the license that allows you to modify the image.

 

Music

 

Popular music generally requires the payment of royalties to the artists, composers, arrangers, producers and anyone else who had something to do with the production of those works.

 

Licensed Music and Music for a Fee

 

ASCAP and BMI provide licensing for music and it is possible to purchase the rights, or a license, to use something that fits the creative bill.

 

But in most cases, the cost is prohibitive unless you have a blanket license to use a certain amount of music.

 

If you use music in a video that you post on YouTube and the creator has not authorized the use, it is likely that YouTube will challenge your right to use it and it may block your video.

 

However, there are new sites cropping up all of the time and there is a wide range of choices for music selections.

 

Stock music is available for a fee and there a many sites that offer this service including:

 

http://www.stockmusic.net

http://www.freestockmusic.com

http://www.premiumbeat.com/stock-music

http://www.pond5.com/music/1/*.html

http://us.audionetwork.com

http://www.gettyimages.com/music

 

Royalty Free Music

 

YouTube recently launched an audio library and has a range of music that is available for free

 

http://www.youtube.com/audiolibrary

 

There are many sites that also offer free music. There is generally a stipulation that requires that you honor the Creative Commons License and credit the creators.

 

ccMixter

Incompetech

SoundCloud

http://www.purple-planet.com

 

Again, by the time you read this there may be many new sites.

 

 

 

 

 

Punctuation Update

Quotation marks in a bubble

Dateline

For example:

NEW YORK, Sept 12 (Reuters) –
BISHKEK, Kyrgyzstan, Sept 12 (Reuters) –

Put your byline underneath

by Chris Valentin

Quotation Marks

Periods, commas, question marks and exclamation points go inside the quotation marks.

Example:

Billy Collins stood in line to vote and looked up when someone asked why he came out to vote early, “I haven’t voted in 30 years and now I’m here.” he said.

 

Use a comma before the quotation.

Example:

New Orleans Mayor LaToya Cantrell warned residents about the dangerous hurricane heading their way. She said, “This is not a drill.”

The first letter of the first word in a quote is capitalized.

Example:

N.B.A. star LeBron James and other prominent black athletes and entertainers started a group aimed at protecting African American voting rights and encouraging people to vote.

“Yes, we want you to go out and vote, but we’re also going to give you the tutorial,” Mr. James said. “We’re going to give you the background of how to vote and what they’re trying to do, the other side, to stop you from voting.”

Write out percent.

Put Links Under Facts or for Attribution.

Example: 

It is difficult to tease apart the reasons that the virus ebbs and flows in this way, and harder still to predict the future.

But as winter looms, there are real reasons for optimism. Nearly 70 percent of adults are fully vaccinated, and many children under 12 are likely to be eligible for their shots in a matter of weeks. Federal regulators could soon authorize the first antiviral pill for Covid-19.

“We are definitely, without a doubt, hands-down in a better place this year than we were last year,” said Dr. Nahid Bhadelia, director of the Center for Emerging Infectious Diseases Policy and Research at Boston University.

Attribution

A 14-year-old boy was grazed in the head Thursday by a bullet as he stepped off an MTA bus in Harlem, officials said.

The teen was exiting the M1 bus on E. 139th St. near Fifth Ave. when shots rang out just before 10 a.m., cops said.

Dashes Between Words

Compound words  use dashes when the two words used together and  express a specific concept. Often they are adjectives before the noun they describe. 

Example: 

The hard-hit neighborhood in Brooklyn hopes to find an investor. 

It became cost-effective to shop at the neighborhood grocery story. 

Quinceañera is a coming-of-age celebration.

Use hyphens to separate the numbers and words if the phrase is an adjective.

Dawn is 17-years-old.

The girl was 17 

Exercise: 

Kyrie Irving has finally opened up to the public about his future in the league and why he’s not vaccinated.

In an Instagram Live, Irving disclosed not only did he have no plans to retire from the game, but also that his vaccination status has nothing to do with the Nets or the 

Punctuate: Don’t believe I’m retiring, don’t believe I’m gonna give up this game for a vaccine mandate the Nets star said Wednesday night All these people saying all these things about what’s going on with me and it’s just not true.
Punctuate: 

I certainly think in a lot of instances we’ve gotta be a phasing out these zoos — definitely the circuses and the rodeos and all that because of the barbaric behavior, the inhumane behavior towards the animals he said. Eventually we’re going to have to start phasing out zoos, or at least some of the animals that are housed in zoos

Sliwa, who’s facing Democratic nominee Eric Adams and is considered a long shot in the race, conceded he’s not an expert on the subject, but added that he’d look at the issue on a “case-by-case” basis if elected mayor.

 

From Vanity Fair about Washington Post Protocols

In a memo to the newsroom on Wednesday morning, executive editor Marty Baron outlined five “principles for covering potential hacked or leaked material ahead of the election.” 

First principle: “Before reporting on the release of hacked or leaked information, there should be a conversation with senior editors about the newsworthiness of the information, its authenticity and whether we can determine its provenance. Our emphasis should be on making a sound and well-considered decision—not on speed. We should resist the instinct to post a story simply because a competitor has done so.”

Second principle: “Beware the echo: The fact that politicians or other organizations are reporting or commenting on hacked or leaked information does not automatically make it reportable by us.”

Third: “If a decision is made to publish a story about hacked or leaked information, our coverage should emphasize what we know—or don’t know—about the source of the information and how that may fit into a foreign or domestic influence operation. Our stories should prominently explain what we know about the full context of the information we are presenting, including its origins and the motivations of the source, including whether it appears to be an effort to distract from another development. Headlines need to be carefully vetted to make sure they do not echo propaganda.” 

Fourth: “We should avoid linking to hacked material or potential disinformation, which could amplify such material online without context. Also, while such material may be authentic, it may be part of a release that also includes doctored or falsified material.”

And last but not least: “Connect the dots: Our ongoing coverage should help readers understand how political lines of attack fit into disinformation operations. If a candidate amplifies a critique of an opponent that is also being promoted by foreign actors or domestic conspiracy theorists, we should make that clear in our stories.”

Welcome to election season 2020.

New Stories to Read

Jesse McKinley
Luis Ferré-Sadurní

By Jesse McKinley and Luis Ferré-Sadurní

  • Feb. 17, 2021

ALBANY, N.Y. — The Democratic leaders of the New York State Senate are moving to strip Gov. Andrew M. Cuomo of unilateral emergency powers granted during the pandemic, setting up a remarkable rebuke for the governor from members of his own party.

The Senate’s measures, which could be voted on as soon as next week, underscore the deepening division between Mr. Cuomo and state lawmakers since the governor admitted to intentionally withholding critical data on virus-related deaths from the Legislature.

The moves came even as it emerged that the F.B.I. and the U.S. attorney for the Eastern District of New York had opened an inquiry into the Cuomo administration’s handling of nursing homes during the pandemic. It was not known whether the inquiry, which was confirmed by three people familiar with the matter, was focused on Mr. Cuomo or any individual, only that it was in its earliest stages.

The inquiry was another clear indication of how the climate has shifted dramatically for Mr. Cuomo since March, when he emerged as a prominent voice in the health crisis, using his daily briefings and invocations of his family to inform and calm a nation of viewers who turned to him as the virus began to spread. Now, much of that good will has evaporated.

The Senate’s action also illustrates a deepening fatigue in the Democratic-controlled State Legislature over Mr. Cuomo’s broad use of powers, which have enabled him to control nearly every facet of the state’s response to the virus, from ordering widespread shutdowns to managing the distribution of vaccines to feuding with state health officials.

Continue reading.

Cuomo takes aim at Assemblyman Ron Kim over nursing home criticism, links to past political fights

ALBANY — Gov. Cuomo lashed out at one of his most outspoken critics in a lengthy rant Wednesday, accusing Assemblyman Ron Kim of being in the pocket of nail salon owners.

The governor said he has had a “long and hostile relationship” with Kim and chalked up the lawmaker’s recent criticism of the Cuomo administration’s handling of nursing home COVID-19 deaths and related data to a years-old political grudge.

Cuomo, under growing pressure from critics on both sides of the aisle over the nursing home controversy, outright accused his fellow Democrat from Queens of participating in a “pay-to-play” scheme related to a 2015 law offering protections to nail salon workers.

The governor accused Kim of flipping “180 degrees” after initially supporting the bill six years ago because “business people in his community got upset.”

“He actually used his lobbying firm to lobby on behalf of the business owners then raised money from those business owners and continues to do so,” Cuomo seethed.

In a statement, Kim said the governor can “smear me all he wants in an effort to distract us from his fatally incompetent management.”\

The lawmaker also told CNN the governor threatened to “destroy” him during a phone call last week.

“Gov. Cuomo called me directly on Thursday to threaten my career … He tried to pressure me to issue a statement, and it was a very traumatizing experience,” Kim told the network. “(H)e said I hadn’t seen his wrath and that he can destroy me.”

Kim said he then ignored several calls from the governor over the weekend and told Cuomo’s team that any further communications must go through his attorney.

Cuomo senior adviser Rich Azzopardi said Kim is lying about the conversation.

“At no time did anyone threaten to ‘destroy’ anyone with their ‘wrath’ nor engage in a ‘coverup,’” he said. “That’s beyond the pale and is, unfortunately, part of a years-long pattern of lies by Mr. Kim against this administration.”

Continue reading.

Student Investigative Reporting

By Jordan Wolman, Lehigh University (Bethlehem, Pennsylvania)

At The Brown and White, Lehigh University’s student newspaper, we noticed we were caught in the trap of turning around one-off, 500-word rundowns, week after week, on the latest sports game, event or university announcement. Sadly, it took the college news equivalent of a bomb going off to make us realize this.

New York Times Looking for Student Coronavirus Stories

via Twitter: https://twitter.com/AJNierenberg/status/1326897276569194498?s=20
Amelia Nierenberg
@AJNierenberg
https://amelianierenberg.com/College journalists: We always feature updates from local news in the @nytimes
 Coronavirus Schools Briefing. I want to regularly link to student journalism.So! If you write a story that I should read — now or whenever — please send it my way: amelia.nierenberg@nytimes.com. Thx!  

Conspiracies And Consequences

The New York Times

By Nicholas Bogel-BurroughsShaila Dewan and Kathleen Gray

Six men were arrested and accused of plotting with a militia group to kidnap Gov. Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan, the authorities announced on Thursday.

The men, who the F.B.I. said espoused anti-government views, had talked about taking Ms. Whitmer, a Democrat, hostage since at least the summer, according to a criminal complaint filed in federal court and unsealed on Thursday.

They had surveilled Ms. Whitmer’s vacation home in August and September, and they indicated that they wanted to take her hostage before the presidential election in November, Richard J. Trask II, an F.B.I. special agent, said in the criminal complaint. He said the F.B.I. believed the men were planning to buy explosives this week for their attempt.

Several of the men had talked about creating a society in which they could be “self-sufficient” and one said he wanted 200 men to storm the Statehouse in Lansing, Mich, the complaint said.

Six men were arrested and accused of plotting with a militia group to kidnap Gov. Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan, the authorities announced on Thursday.

The men, who the F.B.I. said espoused anti-government views, had talked about taking Ms. Whitmer, a Democrat, hostage since at least the summer, according to a criminal complaint filed in federal court and unsealed on Thursday.

They had surveilled Ms. Whitmer’s vacation home in August and September, and they indicated that they wanted to take her hostage before the presidential election in November, Richard J. Trask II, an F.B.I. special agent, said in the criminal complaint. He said the F.B.I. believed the men were planning to buy explosives this week for their attempt.

Several of the men had talked about creating a society in which they could be “self-sufficient” and one said he wanted 200 men to storm the Statehouse in Lansing, Mich, the complaint said.

Read More:

The New York Daily News

The FBI thwarted a sinister plot to overthrow Michigan’s state government and kidnap several political figures, including Gov. Gretchen Whitmer, the agency said in a series of warrants unsealed Thursday.

At least six men have been charged in the investigation, which began in the early days of the pandemic as a group opposed to the Democratic leader’s strict lockdown measures began planning to storm the state Capitol with Molotov cocktails and take her as a hostage, according to the documents.

Criminal Complaint

https://www.cnn.com/2020/10/08/politics/whitmer-kidnapping-criminal-complaint/index.html

https://mediaschool.indiana.edu/research/reports/wave-1.html?utm_source=API+Need+to+Know+newsletter&utm_campaign=e7b929d6b0-EMAIL_CAMPAIGN_2020_10_06_12_26&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_e3bf78af04-e7b929d6b0-45816177